Emerging Treatment Options for Axial Spondyloarthritis

Reviewed by: HU Medical Review Board | Last reviewed: May 2022 | Last updated: June 2022

As more research is done, more treatment options for AxSpA spectrum conditions emerge. While there is still no cure for these conditions, the goals of treatment are to:1

  • Maximize quality of life
  • Prevent or slow progressive structural damage
  • Control symptoms and inflammation
  • Preserve mobility

The classification of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-AxSpA) allows people living with various kinds of AxSpA spectrum conditions to receive treatment. It also paves the way for researchers to do clinical trials and doctors to prescribe medicines, as opposed to waiting for a radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (r-AxSpA)/ankylosing spondylitis (AS) diagnosis.

What are clinical trials and studies?

Clinical research is a mainstay of medicine and involves medical research using people. There are 2 kinds of clinical research: observational studies and clinical trials.2

Observational studies are studies that involve observing people in “regular” settings and studying the changes that occur over time. They may group study participants by certain features or gather data through exams, tests, or questionnaires.2

Clinical trials are research studies done with people that evaluate a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. They are the main way researchers find out if a treatment is safe and/or effective in humans. With new treatments, clinical trials often look at whether the new treatment is as safe or effective as currently available treatments.2

What does this mean for AxSpA?

Research and clinical trials regarding AxSpa are constantly being done. This means new treatment options may be expanding, especially for nr-AxSpA. Right now, there are more drugs approved to treat ankylosing spondylitis than for nr-AxSPA. However, research may change that in the future.

Bimekizumab is a biologic drug being studied for both ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and nr-AxSpA. Bimekizumab is an antibody that blocks the activity of 2 different interleukins: IL-17A and IL-17F.5 These are proteins that stimulate inflammation in AS. In a Phase 2b trial of the drug, people with AS showed sustained improvements in global assessment of disease, pain, function, and inflammation.5

Another study is looking at people with either psoriatic arthritis, AS, or nr-AxSpA and the drug Ilymya (tildrakizumab). The drug is a biologic that blocks IL-23, which plays a role in inflammation.6,7

Existing treatments

Some drugs approved for AS but not yet approved for nr-AxSpA are used off-label by some doctors for AxSpA. Many of these drugs have also been effective in treating signs and symptoms of nr-AxSpA spectrum conditions. More studies are needed to understand their effectiveness for those with nr-AxSpA.8

Things to think about

Talk with your doctor about emerging treatment options. Your doctor should be aware of any potential treatments that may be a possibility for you and your AxSpA spectrum condition. If you are interested in participating in a clinical study, let your doctor know. If they are aware of any clinical studies that are nearby and recruiting, they can let you know about them.

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